2022, Volume 25, Issue 4

Special Issue on "Learning at the Intersection of Data Literacy and Social Justice"

Guest Editor(s): Camillia Matuk, Simon Knight and Kayla DesPortes

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Full Length Articles

Shan Li

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada // shan.li2@mail.mcgill.ca

Juan Zheng

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada // juan.zheng@mail.mcgill.ca

Susanne P. Lajoie

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada // // susanne.lajoie@mcgill.ca


Examining the sequential patterns of self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors is gaining popularity to understand students’ performance differences. However, few studies have looked at the transition probabilities among different SRL behaviors. Moreover, there is a lack of research investigating the temporal structures of students’ SRL behaviors (e.g., repetitiveness and predictability) and how they related to students’ performance. In this study, 75 students from a top North American university were tasked to diagnose a virtual patient in an intelligent tutoring system. We used recurrence quantification analysis and sequential analysis to analyze the temporal structures and sequential patterns of students’ SRL behaviors. We compared the differences between low and high performers. We found that low performers had more single, isolated recurrent behaviors in problem-solving, whereas the recurrent behaviors of high performers were more likely to be part of a behavioral sequence. High performers also demonstrated a higher transition probability across the three phases of SRL than low performers. In addition, high performers were unique in that their behavioral state transitions were cyclically sustained. This study provided researchers with theoretical insights regarding the cyclical nature of SRL. This study has also methodological contributions to the analysis of the temporal structures of SRL behaviors.


Self-regulated learning, SRL behavior, Recurrence quantification analysis, Temporal structure, Intelligent tutoring system

Min-Hwi Seo

Department of Educational Technology, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea // minhwiseo@ewha.ac.kr

Hyo-Jeong So

Department of Educational Technology, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea // hyojeongso@ewha.ac.kr


The purpose of this research was to design and evaluate the efficacy of a gesture-based exhibit with augmented reality (AR) for understanding complex scientific concepts. In particular, this study focuses on the effect of differently guided conditions in a gesture-based AR. We first present the design and development of a gesture-based AR exhibit about the conductor resistance phenomenon. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of guided and unguided experiences on complex conceptual learning. In the experiment, 40 participants between 15 and 17 years-old were randomly assigned to either the guided (visual and docent explanation) or unguided condition. Their understanding of complex concepts was measured through the pre-test and post-test. The results indicate that while the participants increased cognitive understanding after experiencing the gesture-based AR exhibit, there was no significant difference between the two conditions. This may imply that the provision of extra guidance does not necessarily lead to better conceptual learning. In conclusion, this study provides some implications concerning the design of new types of immersive exhibits in museum contexts.


Augmented reality, Informal learning, Science museum, Conceptual learning

Hui-Tzu Hsu

Language Centre, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (R.O.C.) // lindahsu85@gmail.com

Chih-Cheng Lin

Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan (R.O.C.) // cclin@ntnu.edu.tw


Mobile technology is regarded as a helpful tool facilitating language learning. However, the success of mobile technology largely depends on learners’ acceptance. This study explored the factors that may affect students’ intention formation regarding mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) in the context of higher education through the lens of action control theory. The study adopted mixed methods: an online survey of 557 students and individual interviews with 70 students. The findings indicated factors in each of the three dimensions (preoccupation, hesitation, and volatility) of action control theory that positively or negatively influenced the students’ intention to use mobile technology for language learning. According to the findings, these influential factors may be related experiences in the preoccupation dimension, design and feature interference of MALL applications and teachers’ teaching style influence in the hesitation dimension, and overall appraisal and performance impact and other novelty interference in the volatility dimension. Students’ success in initiating and completing a MALL task depends on mainly depends on their acceptance of MALL, and this acceptance is affected by these factors in a positive or negative direction. The strengthening of the positive influence and the weakening of the negative influence caused by these factors should be paid attention to in the process of performing and engaging in a MALL task. Students’ concerns regarding the use of mobile technology in language education are addressed with suggestions for future research and practice in light of the findings.


Mobile technology, Language learning, Learning intention, Action control, Higher education

Sandy C. Li

Hong Kong Baptist University, HKSAR, PRC // sandyli@hkbu.edu.hk

Karen B. Petersen

Aarhus University, Denmark // kp@edu.au.dk


While infusion of technology into schools has been one of the top priorities of the education reform agenda across the world, findings from many large-scale international assessments indicate that students’ use of information and communication technology (ICT) has mixed effects on their academic achievements. In this paper, we argue that these ambivalent findings were due to the oversight of the indirect effects of ICT use mediated by other ICT-related variables. We employed multilevel structural equation modelling to unfold the relationship between students’ ICT use and their academic achievements based on PISA 2015 data. The results indicated that students’ autonomy in ICT use and students’ interest in ICT use were found to have significant positive direct effects on students’ academic achievements at both within-school and between-school levels. These two variables played a significant role in mediating the indirect effects of ICT use outside school for schoolwork and ICT resources on students’ academic achievements. On the contrary, ICT resources and ICT use at school exerted either no direct effect or a negative direct effect on students’ academic achievements and students’ perceived autonomy related to ICT use, suggesting that mere provision and use of ICT resources in school did not necessarily guarantee success in student performance. At the school level, school’s transformational leadership and collaborative climate helped promote students’ autonomy in ICT use.


ICT use, Academic achievement, Multilevel analysis, Structural equation modelling, PISA 2015

Alejandro Romero-Hernandez, Manuel Gonzalez-Riojo, Meriem El Yamri and Borja Manero

Alejandro Romero-Hernandez

Complutense University of Madrid, Spain // alerom02@ucm.es

Manuel Gonzalez-Riojo

Complutense University of Madrid, Spain // manuel.gonzalez@ucm.es

Meriem El Yamri

Complutense University of Madrid, Spain // melyamri@ucm.es

Borja Manero

Complutense University of Madrid, Spain // bmanero@ucm.es


The performing arts are currently in a critical situation worldwide. Various reports warn that the lack of audience. If we focus on dance, and especially folk dances, the situation is worse. In various countries and continents, folk dances are slowly disappearing. In Spain, we find evidence of the downward trend in terms of the number of attendees to performances of Spanish dance -an art form that is highly valued throughout the world. In a generation marked by technological advancements, the only way for classic performing arts to reach young audiences - or digital natives – is to speak the same language they use with new technologies. This paper presents a study in collaboration with the Spanish National Dance Company, carried out with 877 students (aged from 9 to 12) from 12 different schools in the community of Madrid, Spain. We designed a two-phase experiment. In the first phase, we separated the students into 3 groups: students who played a videogame called “Dancing a Treasure,” those who received a workshop from professional dancers, and a control group. In the second phase that took place two weeks later, the participants attended to a real show of Spanish dance, and we studied how the previous educational approaches affected to the students increase of interest after the show. The experiment demonstrated that the videogame was, at least, as effective in increment interest about dance in younger generations as a workshop taught by expert dance professionals. Thus, in terms of scalability, the videogame is a better option because it can be applied with the same results to larger groups with no additional cost.


Interest, Video games, Spanish dance, M-Learning, Serious games


Learning at the Intersection of Data Literacy and Social Justice

Camillia Matuk, Simon Knight and Kayla DesPortes

Special Issue Articles

Jennifer B. Kahn, Lee Melvin Peralta, Laurie H. Rubel, Vivian Y. Lim, Shiyan Jiang and Beth Herbel-Eisenmann

Jennifer B. Kahn

University of Miami, USA // jkahnthorne@miami.edu

Lee Melvin Peralta

Michigan State University, USA // peralt11@msu.edu

Laurie H. Rubel

University of Haifa, Israel // lrubel@edu.haifa.ac.il

Vivian Y. Lim

CUNY Guttman Community College, USA // vivian.liu@guttman.cuny.edu

Shiyan Jiang

North Carolina State University, USA // sjiang24@ncsu.edu

Beth Herbel-Eisenmann

Michigan State University, USA // bhe@msu.edu


In this paper, we introduce Notice, Wonder, Feel, Act, and Reimagine (NWFAR) to promote social justice in data science (DS) education. NWFAR draws on intersectional feminist DS to scaffold critical perspectives towards systems of power and oppression and attend to students’ experiences in designs for learning. NWFAR adds three practices that are typically not emphasized in learning designs for DS: feel—engaging emotions and the physical body; act—challenging, inspiring, or informing others towards change; and reimagine—envisioning how data, data methods, and data technologies could pursue different problems, solutions, and perspectives. We illustrate NWFAR through two design-based research projects from prior empirical work. Through these two examples, we demonstrate what thinking with NWFAR could look like in practice and highlight future possibilities for learning. We conclude with a discussion that focuses on the reimagining dimension, in which we highlight social-justice oriented theories.


Data science education, Data feminism, Critical data literacies, Social justice

Rahul Bhargava, Amanda Brea, Victoria Palacin, Laura Perovich and Jesse Hinson

Rahul Bhargava

Northeastern University, USA // r.bhargava@northeastern.edu

Amanda Brea

Northeastern University, USA // brea.am@northeastern.edu

Victoria Palacin

Univerisity of Helsinki, Finland // victoria.palacin@helsinki.fi

Laura Perovich

Northeastern University, USA // l.perovich@northeastern.edu

Jesse Hinson

Northeastern University, USA // j.hinson@northeastern.edu


Data literacy is a growing area of focus across multiple disciplines in higher education. The dominant forms of introduction focus on computational toolchains and statistical ways of knowing. As data driven decision-making becomes more central to democratic processes, a larger group of learners must be engaged in order to ensure they have a seat at the table in civic settings. This requires a rethinking to support many paths into data literacy for a variety of learning styles. In this paper we introduce “data theatre,” a set of activities designed for data novices that may have limited experience or comfort with spreadsheets, math, and other quantitative operations. Through iterative co-design over three workshops, we tested and produced two activity guides for educators, building on long-standing practices in participatory theatre that center social justice and liberation. Our initial findings provide very early evidence that this approach can help these learners overcome hesitations to working with information, begin building a critical perspective when viewing data, and create emotionally impactful data stories told through theatrical performance. This prototype work suggests to us that the concept of “Data theatre” warrants further study to build a more robust understanding of its affordances and limitations.


Data literacy, Participatory theatre, Education, Social justice

Starting from Volume 17 Issue 4, all published articles of the journal of Educational Technology & Society are available under Creative Commons CC-BY-ND-NC 3.0 license.