April 2023, Volume 26, Issue 2

Special Issue on "Integration of Technology to Advance Computational Thinking Education"

Guest Editor(s): Ahmed Tlili, Daniel Burgos and Chee-Kit Looi

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Full Length Articles

Yin Zhang

Department of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, P. R. China // zhangyinouc@sina.com

Samuel Kai Wah Chu

Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, P. R. China // samchu@hku.hk

Yonghui Liu

College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, P. R. China // liuyonghui@ouc.edu.cn

Xiaoli Lu

School of Mathematical Sciences & Shanghai Key Laboratory of PMMP, East China Normal University, Shanghai, P. R. China // xllu@math.ecnu.edu.cn


Previous research has looked into educational approaches to prevent plagiarism in academic writing, yielding insights into how plagiarism can be avoided. However, plagiarism remains a major problem in the education sector. We designed a training module that includes a customised Online Scaffolding Writing System (OSWS) to help faculty teach undergraduates how to avoid committing plagiarism in their academic writing. A quasi-experimental design was used to analyse the plagiarism-related perceptions and behavioural changes of 121 undergraduate students and to test the effects of the new module on students’ academic writing. The experimental group performed significantly better than the control group in terms of decreasing the extent of plagiarism in their writing (with a mean decrease from a moderate to minor level of plagiarism), and improving their writing quality (with a mean increase of 18 percentage points in writing scores). Furthermore, more than 95% of the students in the experimental group and their instructor reported that they valued the benefits of adopting the training module in class, and almost 90% of them expressed high levels of satisfaction with the learning they had obtained from the OSWS. This study also provides insights into how the new training module can be implemented across disciplines.


Plagiarism, Hybrid training, Academic writing, Online Scaffolding Writing System (OSWS)

Cite as:Zhang, Y., Chu, S. K W., Liu, Y., & Lu, X. (2023). Effects of a Hybrid Training for Plagiarism Prevention Module on Plagiarism-free Academic Writing in Higher Education. Educational Technology & Society, 26(2), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202304_26(2).0001
Submitted February 5, 2022; Revised July 19, 2022; Accepted August 18, 2022; Published September 26, 2022

Ersin Kara

Middle East Technical University, Turkey // ersinkara07@gmail.com

Kursat Cagiltay

Sabancı University, Turkey // cagiltay@gmail.com


This paper reports on the design and development of educational games and materials that utilize affordable e-textile technology. The researchers employed a design-based approach whereby preschool children used three e-textile materials in two cycles to inform on the development of interactive materials from ordinary objects and bodily interactive games. The study’s data were collected and analyzed according to the design-based research framework through iterative cycles of interviewing, video recording, and note-taking. The paper describes the characteristics, pros, and cons of e-textiles and what to consider when using them to create interactive educational materials for preschool-aged children.


E-textile, Wearable technology, Preschool education, Design-based research (DBR), Executive functions

Cite as:Kara, E., & Cagiltay, K. (2023). Using E-textiles to Design and Develop Educational Games for Preschool-aged Children. Educational Technology & Society, 26(2), 19-35. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202304_26(2).0002
Submitted November 28, 2021; Revised August 28, 2022; Accepted September 19, 2022; Published September 26, 2022

Rui Li

School of Foreign Languages, Hunan University, Hunan, China // liruidianzi@hotmail.com


Although an increasing number of studies have focused on the use of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) for English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ listening skill development, there is a lack of comprehensive meta-analysis regarding the effect sizes of these studies. To fill the gap, 20 selected experimental studies involving 1218 participants were included for a meta-analysis based on the proposed inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results showed that the overall effect size was moderate-to-large, g = 0.792, 95% CI [0.536, 1.047], suggesting that MALL for EFL learners’ listening skill development is more effective than traditional methods. Regarding moderators for the overall effect, different moderator effects of educational levels, software types, control conditions, intervention settings, measured outcome types and intervention durations were reported. Specifically, educational levels were found to be a significant moderator, while software types, control conditions, intervention settings, measured outcome types and intervention durations were not the significant moderators. The implications for practice were discussed as well.


English as a foreign language (EFL), Evidence-based applied linguistics (EBAL), Listening skill, Meta-analysis, Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL)

Cite as:Li, R. (2023). Effects of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning on EFL Learners’ Listening Skill Development. Educational Technology & Society, 26(2), 36-49. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202304_26(2).0003
Submitted March 24, 2022; Revised August 16, 2022; Accepted August 18, 2022; Published September 26, 2022

Tingting Wang

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Canada // tingting.wang4@mail.mcgill.ca

Shan Li

Lehigh University, United States // shla22@lehigh.edu

Susanne Lajoie

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Canada // susanne.lajoie@mcgill.ca


Cognitive load can be induced by both learning tasks and self-regulated learning (SRL) activities, which compete for limited working memory capacity. However, there is little research on the relationship between cognitive load and SRL. This study explored how cognitive load interplayed with SRL behaviors and their joint effects on task performance (i.e., diagnostic efficiency) in the context of clinical reasoning. Specifically, twenty-seven (N = 27) medical students diagnosed three virtual patient cases in BioWorld, a simulation-based learning environment to improve medical students’ clinical reasoning skills. Students’ SRL behaviors were automatically recorded in BioWorld log files as they accomplished the tasks. We employed text mining techniques to extract four linguistic features from students’ concurrent think-aloud, i.e., cognitive discrepancy, insight, causation, and positive emotions, which were further used to represent students’ cognitive load. The latent profile analysis was then performed to cluster students into high- and low-load group. We also conducted a path analysis to investigate the mediation roles of SRL behaviors in the relationship between cognitive load and diagnostic efficiency (task performance). The results revealed that cognitive load negatively affected diagnostic efficiency, mediated by the ratio of SRL behaviors in the self-reflection phase. This study provides theoretical and methodological insights regarding the measurement of cognitive load and its interplay with SRL. This study informs the design of effective interventions for managing cognitive load in SRL within intelligent tutoring systems.


Cognitive load, Self-regulated learning, Technology-rich learning environment, Text mining

Cite as:Wang, T., Li, S., & Lajoie, S. P. (2023). The Interplay Between Cognitive Load and Self-Regulated Learning in a Technology-Rich Learning Environment. Educational Technology & Society, 26(2), 50-62. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202304_26(2).0004
Submitted January 19, 2022; Revised July 9, 2022; Accepted August 12, 2022; Published September 28, 2022

Christopher C.Y. Yang

Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Japan // yang.yuan.57e@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Hiroaki Ogata

Academic Center for Computing and Media Studies, Kyoto University, Japan // ogata.hiroaki.3e@kyoto-u.ac.jp


Blended learning (BL) is regarded as an effective strategy for combining traditional face-to-face classroom activities with various types of online learning tools (e.g., e-books). An effective feature of e-books is the ability to use digital notes. When e-books are used in BL, the strategic adoption of note-taking provides benefits that influence the learners’ progress for self-regulated learning (SRL) and course achievements. However, learners tend to be unsure about how note-taking is performed using online learning materials and lack knowledge of effective strategies for SRL. Furthermore, few studies have investigated blended learners’ sequential patterns of e-book note-taking for SRL. Thus, in this paper, an exploratory study was conducted in an undergraduate course that implemented the BL design. The learning task for the blended learners in the present study was to study the learning material using BookRoll, an e-book system, during in-class and out-of-class learning sessions. Lag sequential analysis of the e-book learning behavior data was conducted to identify the blended learners’ sequential behaviors of e-book note-taking for the cognitive strategy use of SRL. Moreover, the difference between higher- and lower-achievement blended learners in terms of their sequential behaviors of e-book note-taking for SRL was revealed. This study can help educators provide evidence-based educational feedback to learners regarding the identified sequential patterns of e-book note-taking that can be applied as effective strategies for promoting the cognitive strategy use of SRL and improvement of course achievement in BL.


Lag sequential analysis, Sequential pattern, Note-taking, Blended learning, Self-regulated learning

Cite as:Yang, C. C. Y., & Ogata, H. (2023). Lag Sequential Analysis for Identifying Blended Learners’ Sequential Patterns of e-Book Note-taking for Self-Regulated Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 26(2), 63-75. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202304_26(2).0005
Submitted April 18, 2022; Revised August 23, 2022; Accepted September 17, 2022; Published September 28, 2022

Liang-Yi Li

Program of Learning Sciences, Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // lihenry12345@ntnu.edu.tw

Wen-Lung Huang

Department of Communication, Fo Guang University, Yilan, Taiwan // wlhuang@mail.fgu.edu.tw


With the increasing bandwidth, videos have been gradually used as submissions for online peer assessment activities. However, their transient nature imposes a high cognitive load on students, particularly low-ability students. Therefore, reviewers’ ability is a key factor that may affect the reviewing process and performance in an online video peer assessment activity. This study examined how reviewers’ ability affected the comments they provided and their reviewing behaviors and performance. Thirty-eight first-year undergraduate students participated in an online video peer assessment activity for 3 weeks. This study analyzed data collected from the teacher’s and peer reviewers’ ratings, comments provided by peer reviewers, and system logs. Several findings are significant. First, low-ability reviewers preferred to rate higher scores than high-ability reviewers did. Second, low-ability reviewers had higher review errors than high-ability reviewers. Third, high-ability reviewers provided more high-level comments, while low-ability reviewers provided more low-level comments. Finally, low- and high-ability reviewers showed different behavior patterns when reviewing peers’ videos. In particular, low-ability reviewers invested more time and effort in understanding video content, while high-ability reviewers invested more time and effort in detecting and diagnosing problems. These findings are discussed, and several suggestions for improving the instructional and system design of online video peer assessment activities are provided.


Video peer assessment, Learning analytics, Comments provided, Behavior pattern

Cite as:Li, L.-Y., & Huang, W.-L. (2023). Effects of Undergraduate Student Reviewers’ Ability on Comments Provided, Reviewing Behavior, and Performance in an Online Video Peer Assessment Activity. Educational Technology & Society, 26(2), 76-93. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202304_26(2).0006
Submitted January 28, 2022; Revised August 16, 2022; Accepted Aug 29, 2022; Published September 28, 2022


Integration of Technology to Advance Computational Thinking Education

Ahmed Tlili, Daniel Burgos and Chee-Kit Looi

Special Issue Articles

Starting from Volume 17 Issue 4, all published articles of the journal of Educational Technology & Society are available under Creative Commons CC-BY-ND-NC 3.0 license.