October 2023, Volume 26, Issue 4

Special Issue on "Dynamic Accounts of Digital Divides: Longitudinal and Relational Insights into Unequal Learning Gains from Online and Blended Education

Guest Editor(s):  Nora McIntyre

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Full Length Articles

Yu-Ching Tseng

Department of English, Tamkang University, Taiwan // ychtseng@mail.tku.edu.tw

Mei-Rong Alice Chen

Department of English Language and Literature, Soochow University, Taiwan // mralice@scu.edu.tw

Yi-Hsuan Lin

Department of English Language and Literature, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan // lyx29@ulive.pccu.edu.tw


This study investigates the role of self-efficacy in an asynchronous online English course enriched with interactive features. Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of academic achievement in conventional classrooms. However, when learning happens in an online environment, the students’ learning achievement is also affected by their psychological perceptions of online learning. In this study, the relationship between self-efficacy and affective factors (i.e., learner autonomy, learner–content interaction, and perceptions toward transactional distance) was investigated. The aims of this study were to identify the influence of different levels of self-efficacy on these factors and to explore their relationships in an online EFL course. In total, 286 students were administered the questionnaires before and after the curriculum to probe their self-perception of these affective variables. When asynchronous interactive learning materials came into play, learners with different levels of self-efficacy make statistically different learning achievements. The statistically significant differences were also found between the student’s self-efficacy level, their learner autonomy, and their perception toward the interactive contents. However, the difference was not significant between self-efficacy and transactional distance. The cost of asynchronous learning is an increasing transactional distance due to the lack of instructor-learner interaction. This study suggests that interactive content triggered an opposite effect by making the instructor’s role invisible rather than absent. A good online course must balance the student’s self-determined learning and flexibility with the course structure. Interactive learning content can keep the balance between developing learner autonomy and fostering engagement by dissolving the teacher’s role into interactive course material.


Self-efficacy, Asynchronous learning, Learner perceptions, Transactional distance, Interactive contents

Cite as:Tseng, Y.-C., Chen, M.-R. A., & Lin, Y-.H. (2023). An Investigation of the Effects of EFL Students’ Self-efficacy in an Asynchronous Online Course with Interactive Contents. Educational Technology & Society, 26(4), 1-13. https://doi.org/ 10.30191/ETS.202310_26(4).0001
Submitted July 26, 2022; Revised February 14, 2023; Accepted February 24, 2023; Published March 24, 2023

Rustam Shadiev

College of Education, Zhejiang University, China // rustamsh@gmail.com

Junpei Zhou

School of Education Science, Nanjing Normal University, China // zhoujp_99@163.com


 The present study is set to systematically review articles on the use of 360-degree video technology in language learning. The study selected and reviewed twenty-four articles in the following aspects: (1) tools related to 360-degree video technology; (2) languages and skills involved; (3) theories and pedagogical approaches in reviewed articles; (4) methodology of reviewed studies; (5) applications of 360-degree video technology to language learning; (6) reported findings; and (7) reported problems in reviewed studies. The results demonstrated that the tools related to 360-degree video technology can be grouped according to the following three ways of using them: (1) creating or editing videos/images, (2) obtaining videos/images, and (3) viewing videos/images. The participants in most studies recorded or edited 360-degree videos to develop their own learning content, rather than using existing one. In most studies, the participants used head-mounted displays (HMDs) to view 360-degree videos and low-cost HMDs were used more frequently. Scholars often focused on English and Chinese, and they targeted speaking and writing skills in their research. Various theories were used to frame research and the embodied cognition theory was the most popular. The most commonly used pedagogical approach was task-based learning. Fewer studies focused on students from primary or junior school. Many studies lasted for more than one month. Different language skills were mainly measured using scales or tests. Findings related to learning outcomes, learners’ perceptions of using 360-degree video technology and motivation were most frequently reported in the reviewed studies. Finally, problems related to methodology, technology implementation and learning process were identified in the reviewed studies and they are reported in the present research. Based on the results, several suggestions were made and implications derived.


360-degree video technology, Language learning, Review

Cite as:Shadiev, R., & Zhou, J. (2023). A Review of Research on the Use of 360-degree Video Technology in Language Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 26(4), 14-37. https://doi.org/ 10.30191/ETS.202310_26(4).0002
Submitted July 8, 2022; Revised February 6, 2023; Accepted February 27, 2023; Published March 24, 2023

I-Ying Hsu

The Affiliated Senior High School of National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan // tosca@tea.nknush.kh.edu.tw

Fu-Hsing Tsai

Teacher Education Center, National Chiayi University, Taiwan // fhtsai@mail.ncyu.edu.tw


This study developed a physical computing game-design project that incorporates block-based programming, physical computing, and computer game design for Taiwan’s high school technology education curriculum to strengthen students’ computational thinking. The project asked students to develop a somatosensory computer game using a block-based programming language and physical computing devices. This study also attempted to enhance students’ attitudes toward programming, technology, and engineering, and to explore the effectiveness differences between students with different majors. The research findings indicate that the project may improve students’ computational thinking concepts, but did not improve students’ attitudes toward programming, technology, and engineering. While participating science major students’ perceptions and attitudes toward technology and engineering were significantly higher than those of social science majors, this study also found that students’ performance on their project product showed no significant difference between the different groups of majors. These results imply that the application of this project could be feasible and may be beneficial to deepen science majors’ interest in technology and engineering.


Physical computing, Game design, Computational thinking, Project-based learning

Cite as:Hsu, I.-Y., & Tsai, F.-H. (2023). Development and Evaluation of a Physical Computing Game-Design Project for Students’ Computational Thinking. Educational Technology & Society, 26(4), 38-50. https://doi.org/ 10.30191/ETS.202310_26(4).0003
Submitted July 26, 2022; Revised December 8, 2022; Accepted January 30, 2023; Published March 24, 2023

Ying-Hsueh Cheng

National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan // folyhc@alum.ccu.edu.tw


Many students who study English as a foreign language (EFL) often find it challenging to paraphrase while writing from source texts. Lacking such an ability can lead to different meanings as well as copying another person’s ideas, words or work. However, little research has been done to integrate tool consultation to assist students in paraphrasing. To address this gap, this study explored whether guided tool consultation with paraphrasing strategy instruction can help students improve their overall paraphrasing performance. During an 18-week course, a class of students were trained to use three different e-tools to find synonyms: Microsoft Word thesaurus, Oxford Living Dictionaries synonyms (now called Thesaurus.com), and Linggle. Adopting a mixed-method approach, data sets included: pre-posttest drafts (summary writing), surveys, screen recordings, and interviews. The results showed significant differences between the pre- and post-tests. The majority of the lexical and phrasal paraphrases was suitable, while only a few were inaccurate. The students demonstrated the ability to consult the tools for changing synonyms and were able to apply taught strategies to restructure and restate the original sentences. Although students revealed different perceptions of the usefulness of the three tools for finding synonyms, they generally agreed that paraphrasing strategies combined with tool training were beneficial for learning. Pedagogical implications and research suggestions are provided based on the findings.


EFL, Paraphrasing, Tool consultation, Second language writing, Instructional design

Cite as:Cheng, Y.-H. (2023). Exploring the Effects of Tool-Assisted Paraphrasing Strategy Instruction on EFL Learners’ Paraphrasing Performance. Educational Technology & Society, 26(4), 51-68. https://doi.org/ 10.30191/ETS.202310_26(4).0004
Submitted April 29, 2022; Revised February 25, 2023; Accepted March 6, 2023; Published March 29, 2023

Personalized Intervention based on the Early Prediction of At-risk Students to Improve their Learning Performance

Jei Wei Chang, Anna Y.Q. Huang, Albert C.M. Yang, Hiroaki Ogata and Stephen J.H. Yang


Dynamic Accounts of Digital Divides: Longitudinal and Relational Insights into Unequal Learning Gains from Online and Blended Education

Nora McIntyre

Special Issue Articles

Mitigating the Urban-rural Digital Divides: A Dual Scaffoldings-embedded Mobile Augmented Reality Learning Approach in the Post COVID-19 Pandemic  

Xiao-Fan Lin, Juan Jiang, Jiayan Zou and Qintai Hu

Inequality Issues in Online learning of Chinese Cross-border Students under the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Longitudinal Study at a Macro-level

Davy Tsz Kit Ng and Xiaoxuan Fang

Starting from Volume 17 Issue 4, all published articles of the journal of Educational Technology & Society are available under Creative Commons CC-BY-ND-NC 3.0 license.