January 2024, Volume 27, Issue 1
Special Issue on "Designing microlearning for how people learn"
Guest Editor(s): Joseph Rene Corbeil and Maria Elena Corbeil
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Full Length Articles
Wen-Lung Huang, Liang-Yi Li and Jyh-Chong Liang
Department of Communication, Fo Guang University, Yilan, Taiwan // firstname.lastname@example.org
Program of Learning Sciences, Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // email@example.com
Program of Learning Sciences, Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // firstname.lastname@example.org
The purposes of this study were to explore students’ learning performance, knowledge construction, and behavioral patterns in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) online discussions with/without using Form+Theme+Context (FTC) model guidance scaffolding in visual imagery education. In the online learning activities, the control group did not use the FTC model guidance scaffolding, while the experimental group did. This study employed quantitative content analysis and sequential analysis to investigate the discussion content and behavioral patterns of 63 students from a private university in Taiwan during online discussion learning activities. Results showed that the learning performance of the students in the experimental group outperformed that of students in the control group. Moreover, the study revealed that the two groups of students were primarily sharing or comparing information during discussion. More behaviors of exploring opinions and concepts and communicating or constructing knowledge among group members were observed in the experimental group. Secondly, students in the experimental group participated more in knowledge construction than did students in the control group, and their behavioral patterns were more diverse. Accordingly, this study shows that incorporating the FTC model into learning with sufficient guidance from the instructor could be useful for improving students’ visual imagery analysis abilities.
Behavior analysis, Computer-supported collaborative learning, Knowledge construction
Cite as:Huang, W.-L., Li, L.-Y., & Liang, J.-C. (2024). Exploring learners’ learning performance, knowledge construction, and behavioral patterns in online asynchronous discussion using guidance scaffolding in visual imagery education. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).RP01
Submitted December 6, 2022; Revised March 24, 2023; Accepted April 17, 2023; Published May 12, 2023
Scott Grant, Grace Yue Qi, Yu-Ju Lan and Pei-Yu Cheng
School of Languages, Literatures, Cultures and Linguistics, Monash University, Australia // email@example.com
Grace Yue Qi
School of Humanities, Media and Creative Communication, Massey University, New Zealand // firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Chinese as a Second Language, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // email@example.com
Department of Information Management, Tamkang University, Taiwan // firstname.lastname@example.org
Based on the concept of Communities of Practice (CoPs), this study describes the design and implementation of an online academic conference, Pedagogy and Practice in Technology Enhanced Language Learning (PPTELL) 2021, as a backdrop for exploring how to effectively promote the development of academic citizenship within the PPTELL CoP. To address this, we propose a framework focusing on four interrelated and interdependent dimensions: ubiquitous technologies, social practice, knowledge building, and academic citizenship. The conference utilized Zoom, Second Life, Slido, and several social media apps for various sessions and activities. A triangulation design was employed to analyze data from a post-conference online survey and observation notes. Our findings highlighted the effectiveness of the design in fostering academic citizenship, supported by multiuser virtual worlds like Second Life that enabled social engagement and knowledge building. We also discuss potential solutions to the challenges encountered, taking into account the nature of academic and higher education environments today.
Communities of Practice, Academic citizenship, Technology enhanced language learning, Virtual technologies, Peripherality
Cite as:Grant, S., Qi, G. Y., Lan, Y.-L., & Cheng, P.-Y. (2024). Fostering academic citizenship through ubiquitous technologies in an online academic conference: A framework and its implications. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 18-34. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).RP02
Submitted May 30, 2022; Revised May 4, 2023; Accepted May 12, 2023; Published June 22, 2023
Department of Education, Daegu National University of Education, Republic of Korea // email@example.com
This study compares the interaction patterns of a novice and an experienced instructor using Social Network Analysis (SNA) and content analysis and explores how students’ interactions, degrees of satisfaction, and cognitive presence differ according to the different interaction patterns of the two instructors. Results showed some differences in the interaction characteristics between the sections. First, the experienced instructor was the most powerful actor in the course, while some students in the novice instructor’s section showed higher outdegree centrality than the instructor. In addition, the novice instructor’s section was a more active network than the experienced instructor’s section in which the instructor showed the highest outdegree and indegree and also seemed to have more reciprocal relations. In terms of satisfaction and cognitive presence levels, the students in the experienced instructor’s section in which the instructor focused more on triggering events or exploration activities, reported higher satisfaction than the students in the novice instructor’s section. However, there was no significant difference in students’ cognitive presence levels. A key finding of research suggests that instructors need to balance their participation, stimulate students’ curiosity, and encourage brainstorming—rather than directly offering solutions—to improve students’ satisfaction in asynchronous discussion-based online learning. This research also indicates that well-designed discussion topics may contribute more to developing students’ cognitive presence than the instructor’s interaction patterns. Finally, this research highlights the effectiveness of SNA and content analysis to explore instructors’ and students’ interactions on discussion boards.
Online discussion, Interaction, Online instructor, Cognitive Presence, Social Network Analysis (SNA)
Cite as:Lim, J. (2024). Students’ interaction, satisfaction and cognitive presence in online discussions: Comparing novice and experienced instructor with distinguished interaction patterns. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 35-49. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).RP03
Submitted January 3, 2023; Revised May 13, 2023; Accepted May 25, 2023; Published June 23, 2023
Sze Ki Marianna Fung and Liping Deng
Sze Ki Marianna Fung
Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China // firstname.lastname@example.org
Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China // email@example.com
This mixed method study aims to address the lack of self-regulation in primary school students through providing self-regulation training with prompts and modeling in virtual flipped classroom (VFC). A four-week training was integrated into an extra-curricular program of Chinese speech with prompts or modeling embedded in pre-class videos. The study examines to what extent and how prompts and modeling affect students’ self-regulation and learning outcome. Forty-two primary school students from Grades 4 to 6 were randomly assigned into the prompt group and the modeling group. Both groups had not received self-regulation training before and did not show significant difference in the pre-test of self-regulation and the ability of speaking Chinese. The study collects multiple types of data including questionnaires, students’ notes, observations, interviews, and speaking tests. The study is innovative as it directly compares the effectiveness of modeling and prompts on enhancing students’ self-regulation. The results show that both prompts and modeling are effective in enhancing students’ self-regulation and learning outcome with modeling having an edge over prompts. The students and their parents expressed positive views towards self-regulation training in the program. This study provides several implications for practitioners on how to cultivate students’ self-regulation.
Self-regulation, Prompts, Modeling, Flipped classroom
Cite as:Fung, S. K. M., & Deng, L. (2024). Enhancing self-regulation via prompts and modeling in virtual flipped classroom. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 50-64. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).RP04
Submitted August 12, 2022; Revised May 23, 2023; Accepted June 6, 2023; Published June 27, 2023
Department of Science Education, Kırşehir Ahi Evran University, Kırşehir, Turkey // firstname.lastname@example.org
Flipped learning, a well-established method in science education, sees its impact further amplified when coupled with the active control of self-regulated learners over their learning and metacognitive processes. In this study, a self-regulated flipped learning approach was designed and tested with the intention of enhancing the science learning performance of middle school students. A quasi-experimental design was employed involving middle school students from a science course in Turkey, with the aim to examine the impacts of the approach on students’ academic achievements, attitudes, self-regulation levels, and motivations. The experimental group consisted of 29 students (14 male, 15 female) in the self-regulated flipped class, while the control group comprised 30 students (13 male, 17 female) who received traditional flipped learning instruction. In total, 59 eighth-grade students participated in the four-week study. Data were collected through achievement tests, attitude scales, self-regulated learning scales, and motivation scales. The results reveal that the experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of academic achievement, attitudes, self-regulated learning, and motivation. These findings can provide valuable insights and practical implications for educators and researchers in the fields of educational technology and science education.
Self-regulated learning, Flipped learning, Science education, Middle school students
Cite as:Ateş, H. (2024). Designing a self-regulated flipped learning approach to promote students’ science learning performance. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 65-83. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).RP05
Submitted November 10, 2022; Revised May 30, 2023; Accepted June 6, 2023; Published June 27, 2023
Yi Zhang, Jiumin Yang, Chenyan Dai and Zhongling Pi
College of Education for the Future, Beijing Normal University, China // email@example.com
Faculty of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Central China Normal University, China // firstname.lastname@example.org
Hangzhou Zhaohui Middle School, China // email@example.com
Key Laboratory of Modern Teaching Technology (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Normal University, China // firstname.lastname@example.org
Previous studies have shown that encouraging students to use self-explanation strategies has proven effective in text-focused learning contexts. However, no study to date has focused on how students’ strategy preference moderates the effect of self-explanation strategies on learning from video lectures. The current study investigated how students’ self-explanation strategy preference impacts their learning from video lectures by using prompts with a between-within-subjects design strategy preference (i.e., strategy preference vs. no strategy preference; between subject) and with prompt type (i.e., focused vs. open; within-subject), assessing learning performance, cognitive load, attention allocation, quantity and quality of explanation, and behavioral patterns. Study results showed that, compared to students using open prompts and with no self-explanation preference, providing focused prompts improved their learning performance and explanation quality, lowering their cognitive load and enabling them to search for information more accurately. Meanwhile, for students with a self-explanation preference, the two types of prompts used in this study had a similar positive impact on their learning performance and their quality of explanation.
Self-explanation, Strategy preference, Attention allocation, Behavior pattern
Cite as:Zhang, Y., Yang, J., Dai, C., & Pi, Z. (2024). Students’ strategy preference moderates effects of open or focused self- explanation prompts on learning from video lectures. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 84-99. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).RP06
Submitted August 5, 2022; Revised April 30, 2023; Accepted May 8, 2023; Published July 5, 2023
Center of Excellence in Educational Invention and Innovation, Department of Educational Technology and Communications, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand // email@example.com
Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong // firstname.lastname@example.org
This research aims to develop an innovation-based virtual flipped learning system in a ubiquitous learning environment to enhance twenty-first-century learning skills in information, media, and technology of learners in higher education. The study employed a design-based research method to study the needs and user experiences of students and teachers. The system consists of three components: (1) a flipped classroom, (2) a virtual learning system and (3) a ubiquitous learning environment and involved five steps: (1) preparing learners, (2) setting learning objectives, (3) self-studying online content, (4) meeting with teachers and classmates to expand knowledge and (5) assessing results. The participants were 97 undergraduate students. This study found that students had twenty-first-century learning skills in information, media, and technology literacies after studying were significantly higher at the highest level in every skill. The average scores of the test before the study, during the study and after the study had heightened attitude levels and information, media, and technology literacies with statistical significance at the .05 level. The results of the test after the study had the highest average scores, followed by those from and before the study. This indicates that the developed innovation can improve the overall attitude and information, media, and technology literacies of learners.
Virtual learning, Flipped learning, Ubiquitous learning environment, 21st century skills, Higher education
Cite as:Khlaisang, J., & Teo, T. (2024). An innovation-based virtual flipped learning system in a ubiquitous learning environment the 21st century skills of higher education learners. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 100-116. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).RP07
Submitted October 25, 2022; Revised May 19, 2023; Accepted June 12, 2023; Published July 7, 2023
Selin Urhan and Selay Arkün Kocadere
Hacettepe University, Turkey // email@example.com
Selay Arkün Kocadere
Hacettepe University, Turkey // firstname.lastname@example.org
This study investigated the effect of video lecture types on the performance of students in computational problem-solving practices. A total of 19 university students participated in the computational problem-solving practices that mostly required declarative knowledge, and 22 university students participated in the computational problem-solving practices that mostly required procedural knowledge. The practices were implemented in the Algorithm and Programming course and the Computer Programming II course. Three video lecture types (instructor-whiteboard, instructor voice-handbook, instructor-slides) were used in both courses. The one-way repeated measures ANOVA test was employed to determine if there was a significant difference between the problem-solving performances of the students based on the video lecture type. In the Algorithm and Programming course that required mostly declarative knowledge, the problem-solving scores of the students were significantly higher after the instructor voice-handbook video practice than those after the instructor-whiteboard video practice. On the other hand, in the Computer Programming II course that required mostly procedural knowledge, the problem-solving scores of the students were significantly higher after the instructor-whiteboard video practice than those after the instructor voice-handbook video practice. The students showed higher performance in the video lecture types they preferred in both courses. The students listed the factors that affect their video preferences as (a) the effect of the presence of an instructor in the video lecture on their attention, (b) the efficiency of the video lecture in examining many and various examples in a limited time, (c) the opportunity provided by the video lecture to revise the content and procedure, and (d) the efficient presentation of the knowledge. It is recommended that an instructor should be present in the video that includes mostly procedural knowledge, while there is no need for an instructor in the video that includes mostly declarative knowledge regarding computational problem-solving activities.
Computational thinking, Video lecture, 21st century skills, Online learning
Cite as:Urhan, S., & Kocadere, S. A. (2024). The effect of video lecture types on the computational problem-solving performances of students. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 117-133. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).RP08
Submitted January 27, 2023; Revised June 7, 2023; Accepted June 16, 2023; Published July 7, 2023
Special Issue Articles
Joseph Rene Corbeil and Maria Elena Corbeil
Joseph Rene Corbeil
The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, TX, USA // email@example.com
Maria Elena Corbeil
The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, TX, USA // firstname.lastname@example.org
Although the term microlearning has been around since 2005 (Hug, 2005), it has regained popularity in recent years due to the increasing mobility and competing priorities of adult learners. Today’s learners seek smaller, focused lessons that deal with a single topic and can be consumed quickly. Yet, there are still many questions surrounding what microlearning entails, how it should be designed, who it is intended for, and how the learning in microlearning can be assessed. This special issue aims to explore the design, development, implementation, and assessment of microlearning, with an emphasis on designing microlearning experiences with today’s learners in mind. After undergoing two rounds of rigorous reviews, four out of the 28 submissions received for this special issue were chosen for inclusion. This editorial note will introduce the special topic, analyze common themes across the selected papers, outline the procedures for paper solicitation and review, present summaries of the accepted papers, and synthesize the key findings.
Microlearning, Micro-credentials, Mobile-based, Self-directed learning
Cite as:Corbeil, J. R., & Corbeil, M. E. (2024). Editorial note: Designing microlearning for how people learn. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 134-136. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).SP01
Published July 7, 2023
Robert L. Moore, Woorin Hwang and Jennifer D. Moses
Robert L. Moore
University of Florida, FL, USA // email@example.com
University of Florida, FL, USA // firstname.lastname@example.org
Jennifer D. Moses
University of Florida, FL, USA // email@example.com
This systematic review examines the empirical literature published between 2015 and 2021 on mobile-based microlearning in adult learning contexts. The rapid shift to online learning in 2020 in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic has emphasized the need to explore flexible learning options for adult learners. The convenience of mobile-based learning has increased due to the prevalence and global access to mobile devices. Mobile-based microlearning is an emerging area of research, and in this systematic review we explore ways adult learning contexts – including workplace and higher education – have integrated mobile-based microlearning to support instructional goals. We synthesize nine articles about mobile-based microlearning highlighting findings and implications for facilitators. Our findings showed that mobile-based microlearning is being implemented in various instructional contexts and the included studies focused on effectiveness and design principles. We conclude our review with recommendations for implications for practice.
Microlearning, Mobile-based microlearning, Just-in-time training
Cite as:Moore, R. L., Hwang, W., & Moses, J. D. (2024). A systematic review of mobile-based microlearning in adult learner contexts. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 137-146. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).SP02
Published August 4, 2023
Center for the Advancement of Faculty Excellence, North Central College Naperville, IL, USA // firstname.lastname@example.org
What do you do when employees want sustained, in-person, dialogic learning opportunities, but the realities of their work prevent participation in such learning events? Microlearning can offer an important solution to this conundrum but also requires careful navigation between design recommendations, learner preferences, learning objectives tied to work tasks, and assessment. This concurrent mixed methods research study uses identical convenience sampling to answer the research question: How is employee learning impacted by microlearning design decisions made to address fundamental contradictions presented by learner preferences and workplace contexts? This study focuses on the case of microlearning lessons on inclusive teaching in a professional development program for faculty at a small comprehensive university in the southeastern United States. Eleven participants’ reflections, contributions to asynchronous discussions, responses to a post-program survey, and submissions on pre- and post-lesson assessments were analyzed through qualitative coding and descriptive and inferential statistics. While quantitative data analysis revealed significant participant learning aligned with lesson objectives, qualitative analysis revealed that learners also engaged in learning beyond these learning objectives. Complementing extensive literature on microlearning for procedural learning, this study provides new insights related to needs assessment, suitable learning objectives, social dimensions, and assessment of microlearning and offers recommendations for designing and assessing microlearning when adapting it to learners’ preferences and workplace contexts.
Faculty development, Inclusive teaching, Instructional design, Microlearning, Peer learning
Cite as:Lohman, L. (2024). How can you deliver microlearning when learners don’t want it? Designing microlearning for socially oriented learners. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 147-165. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).SP03
Publishe August 16, 2023
Vanessa P. Dennen, Ömer Arslan and Jiyae Bong
Vanessa P. Dennen
Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA // email@example.com
Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA // firstname.lastname@example.org
University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA // email@example.com
In higher education, learners often look to instructors to guide their learning process along a prescribed path. This case study explores how 85 students, and their 5 instructors, experienced a microlearning system consisting of microlearning challenges and corresponding micro-credentials. These microlearning challenges were embedded in a higher education course to engage learners in brief, self-directed learning tasks that served as extensions of course content. The microlearning system in this case study, called “tech-flex challenges,” was optional and implemented across five sections of an educational technology course for preservice teachers at a public university in the United States. Findings show that students had favorable perceptions of the system, but low participation rates. Students who completed microlearning challenges enjoyed them and were more likely to engage for learning purposes than to earn a micro-credential. Instructors also viewed the challenges favorably, but suggested that they should be woven into the course as a mandatory element to foster greater attention and participation.
Digital badge, Higher education, Micro-credential, Microlearning, Self-directed learning
Cite as:Dennen, V. P., Arslan, Ö., & Bong, J. (2024). Optional embedded microlearning challenges: Promoting self-directed learning and extension in a higher education course. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 166-182. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).SP04
Published August 16, 2023
Lucas Kohnke, Dennis Foung, Di Zou and Meilin Jiang
Department of English Language Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China // firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
School of Journalism, Writing, and Media, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada // firstname.lastname@example.org
Centre for English and Additional Languages, Lingnan University, Hong Kong // email@example.com
School of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Metropolitan University, Hong Kong, China // firstname.lastname@example.org
Teachers fostering future-ready graduates need to master updated pedagogical and technological knowledge, so teacher professional development (TPD) is essential. Conventional TPD activities such as seminars and workshops are limited as they require specific time blocks and lack flexibility. The current study investigated TPD through microlearning courses in online and blended learning modes as an innovative TPD approach in Hong Kong. We applied a qualitative approach and thirty-two preservice teachers in the English language education program participated. The data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and observations for data collection. The pre-service teachers’ digital competencies were evaluated against an observation protocol based on the SAMR framework and TPACK model. The effects of microlearning and the participants’ digital competence needs were also identified. The results revealed how preservice teachers perceived the integration of technology and the challenges they encountered (e.g., design of learning tasks and time management). Based on the findings, personalized and hands-on training is recommended to fulfill teachers’ diverse learning targets in applying specific technology and deepen their understanding of technology use. Furthermore, as more conceptual frameworks for assisting microlearning in TPD are necessary, this study can help enrich the underpinning theories for the microlearning design of TPD.
Microlearning, Pre-service teachers, Digital competence, Technology, Pedagogy
Cite as:Kohnke, L., Foung, D., Zou, D., & Jiang, M. (2024). Creating the conditions for professional digital competence through microlearning. Educational Technology & Society, 27(1), 183-197. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202401_27(1).SP05
Published August 16, 2023
Generative artificial intelligence in education: Theories, technologies, and applications
Roles and functionalities of ChatGPT for students with different growth mindsets: Findings of drawing analysis
Facilitating nursing and health education by incorporating ChatGPT into learning designs
Ching-Yi Chang, Chin-Lang Yang, Hsiu-Ju Jen, Hiroaki Ogata and Gwo-Haur Hwang