2020, Volume 23, Issue 1

Full Length Articles

Lanqin Zheng

School of Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China // bnuzhenglq@bnu.edu.cn

Kaushal Kumar Bhagat

Centre for Educational Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India // kkntnu@hotmail.com

Yuanyi Zhen

School of Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China // zyyouc@126.com

Xuan Zhang

School of Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China // zhxuan@mail.bnu.edu.cn


ABSTRACT:

The purpose of this study was to examine the overall effectiveness of the flipped classroom on students’ learning achievement and motivation. Data were collected from three databases, which include Web of Science, Scopus, and Eric. The present meta-analysis synthesized the findings of 95 studies with 15386 participants published from 2013 to 2019. The results revealed that the flipped classroom approach had a moderate effect size for learning achievement and learning motivation. The effect sizes of 12 moderators, including sample level, sample size, learning domain, the flip classroom model, research design, intervention duration, teaching method in the class, sample region, interactions in a pre-class and face-to-face class, tools in pre-class, and resources in pre-class were also analyzed. The results indicated that sample size, intervention durations, and sample regions significantly moderated the effect sizes. The findings of this study are discussed in-depth, together with the implications for practices on the use of the flipped classroom approach.


Keywords: Flipped classroom, Learning achievement, Learning motivation, Meta-analysis

Zhuo Wang

Qingdao University, China // zhuowang@qdu.edu.cn

Gwo-Jen Hwang

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, China // gjhwang.academic@gmail.com

Zhaoyi Yin

University of Glaskow, United Kingdom // piperyin@126.com

Yongjun Ma

Qingdao University, China // qdmayongjun@163.com


ABSTRACT:

Vocabulary mastery is critical to English as Foreign Language students. Mobile technologies enable students to learn vocabulary without space and time limitations. However, existing mobile-assisted vocabulary learning research often employed teacher-directed activities that increased instructors’ workload, undermined student motivation or targeted individual cognitive outcomes only. In this study, a Contribution-oriented Self-Directed Mobile Learning Ecology (CSDMLE) model is proposed for developing student-directed and motivational vocabulary learning activities in groups. Through a mixed-method design, we administered a survey and a vocabulary test to 55 freshmen students in a Chinese university, and conducted follow-up interviews. We found that students in the CSDMLE group outperformed those not in the group in the post-test vocabulary test, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups’ delayed vocabulary test or L2 motivation. However, the treatment group displayed a highly favorable attitude toward the learning approach and a strong intention to use it continuously. The findings have implications for technology-supported vocabulary learning activities.

Keywords: EFL, Mobile learning, Vocabulary retention, L2 motivation

Facilitating Communicative Ability of EFL Learners via High-Immersion Virtual Reality

Fang-Chuan Ou Yang, Fang-Ying Riva Lo, Jun Chen Hsieh and Wen-Chi Vivian Wu

Fang-Chuan Ou Yang

Computer Science & Communication Engineering, Providence University, Taiwan // ouyang18315@pu.edu.tw

Fang-Ying Riva Lo

Center for General Education, Asia University, Taiwan // flo@asia.edu.tw

Jun Chen Hsieh

Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Asia University, Taiwan // curtis3883@asia.edu.tw

Wen-Chi Vivian Wu

Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, Asia University, Taiwan // Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taiwan // vivwu123@asia.edu.tw


ABSTRACT:

Developing communicative ability of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners is essential when it comes to authentic learning. Nevertheless, conventional textbook usage and English instruction often fail to be learner-engaging. With the help of high-immersion Virtual Reality (VR), language learning can be transformed into a more self-directed learning experience, using a simulated authentic environment to enhance engagement. Therefore, a three-dimensional learning system, Virtual Reality Life English (VRLE), was developed to provide learners with an authentic setting to facilitate communicative ability development. Seventy-two low-achieving junior high school students were recruited as participants. Multiple data sources were collected for both quantitative and qualitative data analysis of VRLE, including a pre-test/post-test addressing communicative performance, an Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) for the students’ perception of perceived presence, and a semi-structured interview. The primary affordances were the beneficial application of VRLE to English communicative ability and an enhanced sense of presence in an EFL context. Furthermore, the students were positive about the learning experience. The study proves the potential of incorporating high-immersion VR technology in an EFL context. Nevertheless, the challenge of its accessibility needs careful consideration in future research to place VR in an advantageous position for language learning.

Keywords: Virtual reality, Presence, Immersion, Communicative ability, English as a Foreign Language

Student Game Design as a Literacy Practice: A 10-Year Review

Hsiu-Ting Hung, Jie Chi Yang, and Yi-Chin Tsai

Hsiu-Ting Hung

Department of English, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan // hhung@nkust.edu.tw

Jie Chi Yang

Graduate Institute of Network Learning Technology, National Central University, Taiwan // yang@cl.ncu.edu.tw

Yi-Chin Tsai

Department of English, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan // 0431813@nkust.edu.tw


ABSTRACT:

Learning through designing digital games has recently emerged as a potential approach for school learners to boost their literacy development and learning in and across disciplines. However, existing knowledge on this relatively new approach is still fragmented, and little is known about its implementation features, associated learning opportunities, and possible challenges experienced by students. As such, the present review seeks to synthesize relevant research in terms of the three aspects stated above to better understand the concept of student game design as a literacy practice. A total of 30 peer-reviewed research articles published between 2010-2020 are included in this research synthesis. Findings reveal that there is considerable variation in how the literacy learning approach of student game design is currently implemented, with respect to the school learners involved and game-making tools adopted. Despite its diverse nature, the feasibility of literacy learning by game-making is confirmed across the reviewed studies, with the disciplinary literacy in computer science and 21st century literacy being most prominent. This review has also brought to light the potential of introducing students to content-based game design to foster interdisciplinary learning. In order to provide a balanced portrait, this review further identifies major challenges of learning with the game-making approach from students’ perspectives.

Keywords: Digital games, Game design, Literacy learning, Literature review

Learning Tennis through Video-based Reflective Learning by Using Motion-Tracking Sensors

Chih-Hung Yu, Cheng-Chih Wu, Jye-Shyan Wang, Hou-Yu Chen, and Yu-Tzu Lin

Chih-Hung Yu

Graduate Institute of Information and Computer Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // chihung@ntnu.edu.tw

Cheng-Chih Wu

Graduate Institute of Information and Computer Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // chihwu@ntnu.edu.tw

Jye-Shyan Wang

Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // jyeshyan@ntnu.edu.tw

Hou-Yu Chen

Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // Education Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan // houyuchen@ym.edu.tw

Yu-Tzu Lin

Graduate Institute of Information and Computer Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // linyt@ntnu.edu.tw


ABSTRACT:

This study proposed a video-based reflective learning approach using motion-tracking sensors to facilitate the learning of tennis skills in a college physical education class by beginning players. The motion-tracking sensors, synchronized with a smartphone video application, were attached to tennis rackets for collecting the students’ shot-data. By observing one’s practice videos, students could compare their performance with the instructor’s demo videos and reflect on the differences for possible improvement. A quasi-experimental method was conducted on two intact classes of students to investigate the effects of the proposed approach. The results showed that students taught by the proposed approach performed better than the traditional approach, exhibited positive attitudes toward learning, and obtained the essence of key tennis techniques. Future implementation should train students how to interpret the sensor collected shot-data so that students can have richer information for reflection.

Keywords: Sensors, Reflective Learning, Tennis, Physical Education, Video-based Learning

Michael Pin-Chuan Lin

Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Education, Canada // pla85@sfu.ca

Daniel Chang

Simon Fraser University, Faculty of Education, Canada // dth7@sfu.ca


ABSTRACT:

In the present study, we developed a chatbot that helps teachers to deliver writing instructions. By working with the chatbot, the post-secondary writers developed a thesis statement for their argumentative essay outlines, and the chatbot helped the writers to refine their peer review feedback. We conducted a preliminary analysis of the effect of a chatbot on these writers’ writing achievement. We also collected several student testimonials about their chatbot experiences. Several important pedagogical and research implications for chatbot-guided writing instructions and the use of learning technology have been addressed.

Keywords: Chatbot, Intelligent tutoring system (ITS), Learning tool, Writing skills, Classroom study

Starting from Volume 17 Issue 4, all published articles of the journal of Educational Technology & Society are available under Creative Commons CC-BY-ND-NC 3.0 license.