July 2020, Volume 23, Issue 3

Full Length Articles

Seoyeon Park

Department of Teaching, Learning, and Culture, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA // pseoyeon5@tamu.edu

Wenting Weng

Department of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA // vinna_weng@tamu.edu


This study examined how information and communications technology (ICT) related factors and country-level economic status influence student academic achievement. Two-level structural equation modeling was employed to investigate both student-level and country-level variables, using the PISA 2015 data of ninth-grade students across 39 countries. The findings indicate that: (a) students’ interest in ICT, perceived ICT competence, and autonomy had positive impacts on academic performance; (b) GDP per capita had significant interaction effects on the relationship among ICT-related factors (ICT use for studying at school, for entertainment, and perceived ICT autonomy) and academic performance; and (c) a higher level of students’ perceived autonomy in ICT resulted in better learning outcomes in countries with less income inequality.


Information and Communications Technology (ICT), Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling (MSEM), ICT Competence, ICT Autonomy, Income Inequality

Park, S., & Weng, W. (2020). The Relationship Between ICT-Related Factors and Student Academic Achievement and the Moderating Effect of Country Economic Indexes Across 39 Countries: Using Multilevel Structural Equation Modelling. Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202007_23(3).0001

Xiaozhe Yang, Lin Lin, Yi Wen, Pei-Yu Cheng, Xue Yang and Yunjo An

Xiaozhe Yang

Institute of Curriculum and Instruction, East China Normal University, China // worldetyang@gmail.com

Lin Lin

Department of Learning Technologies, University of North Texas, USA // Lin.Lin@unt.edu

Yi Wen

Institute of Curriculum and Instruction, East China Normal University, China // wenyiyimy@163.com

Pei-Yu Cheng

Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan // peiyu.cheng.tw@gmail.com

Xue Yang

Department of Learning Technologies, University of North Texas, USA // sketchmichelle@gmail.com

Yunjo An

Department of Learning Technologies, University of North Texas, USA // Yunjo.An@unt.edu


This study examined how three auditory lectures delivered at different speeds – normal (1.0x), fast (1.5x) and very fast (3.0x) speeds – affected the graduate students’ attention, cognitive load, and learning that were assessed by pre- and post-comprehension tests, cognitive-load questionnaire, and Electroencephalography (EEG) device. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the students’ attention, cognitive load, and learning performance between the normal (1.0x) and 1.5x speed. However, when the auditory lecture speed reached three times of its original speed (3.0x), the students’ comprehension scores were significantly lower both in the immediate and (one-week) delayed recall tests, than those in the other two speed conditions. When listening to the lecture at the 3.0x speed, the learners had a higher level of attention and cognitive load. The study provided insights for teaching, instructional design, and learning.


Time-compression, Audible, Attention, Cognitive Load, Electroencephalography (EEG)

Cite as:Yang, X., Lin, L., Wen, Y., Cheng, P.-Y., Yang, X., & An, Y. (2020). Time-Compressed Audio on Attention, Meditation, Cognitive Load, and Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 16–26. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202007_23(3).0002

Yi-Hsuan Gloria Lo

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan // glorialo@mail.ntust.edu.tw

Sy-Ying Lee

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan // syying.lee@mail.ntust.edu.tw

Wan-Chu Finny Tien

National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan // B10517007@mail.ntust.edu.tw


In this article, we presented a case study in an EFL context that investigated how a magazine was transformed into a digital video involving a target audience. A group of fifty international students responded to a survey questionnaire developed based on the multimodality framework and some were interviewed to express their preferences for the content and format of the video and to evaluate different versions of the video product. The results show that the transforming process consisted of four stages including (1) collecting target audience’s preferences for the video content and format, (2) converting the discourse type from textual to oral, (3) creating multimodal materials for the video, and (4) (re-)composing the video. The target audience’s responses revealed that effective multimodal orchestration could provide a better engagement and viewing experience for the target audience. The multiliteracies competency of the video creators and viewers was deepened and expanded through the digital transforming processes and interdisciplinary collaboration, which enabled EFL learners to experience, conceptualize, analyze, and apply the learned and new knowledge. With the ultimate goal to cultivate EFL learners to become multimodal literate citizens in the global society, this study advances our understanding of multimodality and yields significant pedagogical implications for multiliteracies education and educational technology in the EFL context.


Video, Target audience, Multimodality, Multiliteracies, Educational technology

Cite as:Lo, Y.-H. G., Lee, S.-Y., & Tien, W.-C. F. (2020). Transforming a Magazine into a Video Involving a Target Audience: A Multiliteracies Case Study in an EFL Context. Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 27–39. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202007_23(3).0003

Bian Wu

Department of Education Information Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China // bwu@deit.ecnu.edu.cn

Yiling Hu

Department of Education Information Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China // ylhu@deit.ecnu.edu.cn

Minhong Wang

Department of Education Information Technology, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China // KM&EL Lab, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China // magwang@hku.hk


The high-fidelity and interactivity afforded by head-mounted displays (HMD) has a potential to improve learning in problem-solving contexts. However, there is a lack of studies with mixed findings on the efficacy of HMD in the development of problem-solving competence. Moreover, the integration of learning strategies with HMD supported learning is often overlooked. This study aimed to address the gap by investigating whether the simulation media (HMD or 2D simulation environments) and learning strategy (with or without planning) may influence student learning with problem-solving tasks. The results show that the HMD and planning groups outperformed other groups in simulated problem-solving tasks, and in transferring the competence to real-world tasks. Students using the HMD perceived a higher level of sense of presence, self-efficacy, and simulator acceptance; but they reported a higher level of mental workload and simulator sickness than those using the 2D simulation. Implications of the findings are also discussed.


Virtual reality, Simulations, Learning strategies, Problem solving

Cite as:Wu, B., Hu, Y., & Wang, M. (2020). How do Head-mounted Displays and Planning Strategy Influence Problem-solving-based Learning in Introductory Electrical Circuit Design? Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 40–52. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202007_23(3).0004

Yi Hsuan Wang

Department of Educational Technology, Tamkang University, Taiwan // annywang12345@hotmail.com


The study integrated learning technology and various e-learning materials to assist teachers in conducting project-based learning for a science course. The activities were designed for learning science concepts such as circuits and the symbols of electricity firstly, and then for applying the concepts to produce a scientific toy. The study intended to integrate the value of the convenience and accessibility of e-books, the feature of interactive demonstration, a combination of visual information with physical objects using augmented reality (AR), and the enjoyment brought by game-based learning to create an integrated e-learning model to support project-based learning processes. A total of 51 elementary school students were invited to take part in the research and were separated into two groups, one using the game-based learning environment with AR-based materials and the other with e-books for the science project-based activity. Despite the quantitative data not presenting any learning differences for the two groups, the qualitative results showed that the e-learning materials with multimedia content were helpful for scaffolding students while completing the hands-on scientific electric current toy, and triggered peer discussion to achieve concept agreement. For example, the text and figures in the e-books helped the students to doubly confirm the processes of the learning information, while the colored blocks on the physical objects in the AR materials facilitated assembly of the elements to complete the science toy. It was noticed that the well-designed AR materials might hinder learners’ thinking ability and restrict their creativity, and hence, the researcher proposes a revised e-learning integration model that combines the advantages of e-books and AR techniques to create more easily accessible e-learning supports and to encourage active thinking for fostering independent and self-regulated learners.


Interdisciplinary projects, Project-based learning, Game-based learning, AR support learning

Cite as:Wang, Y. H. (2020). Integrating Games, e-Books and AR Techniques to Support Project-based Science Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 53–67. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202007_23(3).0005

Susan A. Yoon

Graduate School of Education University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA // yoonsa@upenn.edu

Katherine Miller

Graduate School of Education University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA // kmmiller@upenn.edu

Thomas Richman

Graduate School of Education University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA, USA // trichman@upenn.edu


Online professional development (PD) can support broader accessibility than traditional face-to-face PD. However online delivery presents challenges for characteristics of high-quality PD, such as collaborative knowledge building and community development, that have proven positive outcomes in face-to-face modes. A few comparative studies have demonstrated equivalent outcomes when PD activities have been translated from a successful face-to-face implementation to an online format. This study investigates whether an online version of PD for high school biology teachers on using computer-supported complex systems curriculum and instruction can achieve the same high impact as the face-to-face version. We describe changes in design decisions to accommodate the online mode and measure impact on teachers’ perceptions of their experiences and student outcomes. The results show positive teacher perceptions in both PD formats and roughly equal student outcomes. However, teachers articulated other benefits to online activities that indicate opportunities for improved access to high-quality PD.


Online professional development, Complex systems, Comparative study

Cite as:Yoon, S. A., Miller, K., & Richman, T. (2020). Comparative Study of High-Quality Professional Development for High School Biology in a Face-to-Face versus Online Delivery Mode. Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 68–80. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202007_23(3).0006

Marianna Ioannou

Cyprus Interaction Lab, Department of Multimedia and Graphic Arts, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus // marianna@cyprusinteractionlab.com

Andri Ioannou

Cyprus Interaction Lab, Department of Multimedia and Graphic Arts, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus // Research Centre on Interactive Media, Smart Systems and Emerging Technologies (RISE), Cyprus // andri@cyprusinteractionlab.com


The enactment of embodied learning in the authentic classroom introduces new challenges. The educational system has yet to develop a clear vision or learning design models that would guide the implementation of embodied learning using digital technologies and manipulatives. This study presents an example of a learning design for technology-enhanced embodied learning in an authentic classroom. Three forms of physical embodiment (direct, surrogate and augmented) are enacted using a model consisting of a single educator and rotating across learning stations. The case study takes place in a multidisciplinary lesson around historical information. In this lesson, Year 4 primary school students (i) take virtual tours among the ruins of Archaic kingdoms using mobile VR headsets, (ii) use programmable floor robots to learn about the various occupations people had back then and (iii) create storyboards based on historical information using web-based digital tools. The study evaluates the technology-enhanced embodied learning experience from the perspective of the learners. Data from 34 students demonstrate learning gains, as well as positive perceptions of the learning experience in terms of their relationship with their teammates, their sense of personal development, and the overall classroom orchestration. We conclude with lessons learnt, limitations and suggestions for future work. With this study, we aim to spark a dialogue on how technology-enhanced embodied learning can be successfully enacted in real-world classrooms, highlighting the need for more studies in the intersection of technology, design and pedagogy.


Embodied learning, Technology integration, Technology-enhanced learning, Classroom orchestration, Learning design

Cite as:Ioannou, M., & Ioannou, A. (2020). Technology-enhanced Embodied Learning: Designing and Evaluating a New Classroom Experience. Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 81–94. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202007_23(3).0007

Ahmed Tlili, Vivien Lin, Nian-Shing Chen, Ronghuai Huang and Kinshuk

Ahmed Tlili

Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China // ahmed.tlili23@yahoo.com

Vivien Lin

Department of Applied Foreign Languages, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan // Research Center for Smart Learning, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan // Bachelor Program in Interdisciplinary Studies, College of Future, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan // vivienster@gmail.com

Nian-Shing Chen

Department of Applied Foreign Languages, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan // Research Center for Smart Learning, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan // nianshing@gmail.com

Ronghuai Huang

Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China // huangrh@bnu.edu.cn


University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA // kinshuk@ieee.org


The design, implementation, and outcome of educational robots in special education have not been sufficiently examined in a systematic way. In particular, learner-based and contextual factors, as well as the essential roles played by various stakeholders have not been addressed when robots are used as a learning tool in special education. Therefore, a systematic review using Activity Theory was conducted to analyze 30 studies in robot-assisted special education. Content analysis of the studies reported relevant information with respect to each activity component ─ (a) subject (learners with disabilities), (b) technology (robots supported by instructional design), (c) object (target skills or behaviors), (d) rules (implementation procedure and performance measures), (e) community (learners with disabilities, special education professionals, and parents), (f) division of labor (among learners, professionals and parents), and (g) outcome (performance of target skills or behaviors). Furthermore, the study identified existing gaps from the robot-assisted special education studies (e.g., lack of parental engagement), challenges (e.g., difficulty with standardizing performance measures due to heterogeneity of learner profiles), and contradictions (e.g., opposing views among experts on the role of robots in social interactions). Finally, recommendations were made under each activity component. The study concluded that both general and domain-specific guidelines should be created for each disability category proposed in this review to assist practitioners who wish to use robots to assist special education.


Educational robots, Special education, Disability, Activity Theory, Human-robot interaction, Assistive technology

Cite as:Tlili, A., Lin, V., Chen, N.-S., Huang, R., & Kinshuk. (2020). A Systematic Review on Robot-Assisted Special Education from the Activity Theory Perspective. Educational Technology & Society, 23(3), 95–109. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202007_23(3).0008

Starting from Volume 17 Issue 4, all published articles of the journal of Educational Technology & Society are available under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 license.