October 2020, Volume 23, Issue 4

Full Length Articles

Hsu-Wen Huang

Department of Linguistics and Translation, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong // hwhuang@cityu.edu.hk

Jung-Tai King

Institute of Neuroscience, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan // pax2@nctu.edu.tw

Chia-Lin Lee

Graduate Institute of Linguistics, National Taiwan University, Taiwan // Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University, Taiwan // Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan // Neurobiology and Cognitive Neuroscience Center, National Taiwan University, Taiwan // chialinlee@ntu.edu.tw


Integrating education practices and measurements of brain activity has the potential to make learning more engaging and productive. Direct recordings of electrical activity in the brain provide important information about the complex dynamics of the cognitive processes and mental states that occur during learning, which can ultimately empower learners. In this article, electroencephalographic (EEG) methodologies, including the time-frequency and event-related potential techniques, are introduced, and the application of these techniques to studies of digital learning studies is discussed. Considerations of how to collect high quality data in both laboratory and real world settings are also presented, along with potential research directions. Finally, a general guideline for publishing results is offered. These issues are critical for producing useful applications of EEG studies to the digital learning research community.


Digital learning, Electroencephalograph (EEG), Event-related potentials, Dry-wireless EEG

Cite as:Huang, H.-W., King, J.-T., & Lee, C.-L. (2020). The New Science of Learning: Using the Power and Potential of the Brain to Inform Digital Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0001

Hiroyuki Kuromiya

Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Japan // khiroyuki1993@gmail.com

Rwitajit Majumdar

Academic Center for Computing and Media Studies, Kyoto University, Japan // dr.rwito@gmail.com

Hiroaki Ogata

Academic Center for Computing and Media Studies, Kyoto University, Japan // hiroaki.ogata@gmail.com


Evidence-based education has become more relevant in the current technology-enhanced teaching-learning era. This paper introduces how Educational BIG data has the potential to generate such evidence. As evidence-based education traditionally hooks on the meta-analysis of the literature, so there are existing platforms that support manual input of evidence as structured information. However, such platforms often focus on researchers as end-users and its design is not aligned to the practitioners’ workflow. In our work, we propose a technology-mediated process of capturing teaching-learning cases (TLCs) using a learning analytics framework. Each case is primarily a single data point regarding the result of an intervention and multiple such cases would generate an evidence of intervention effectiveness. To capture TLCs in our current context, our system automatically conducts statistical modelling of learning logs captured from Learning Management Systems (LMS) and an e-book reader. Indicators from those learning logs are evaluated by the Linear Mixed Effects model to compute whether an intervention had a positive learning effect. We present two case studies to illustrate our approach of extracting case effectiveness from two different learning contexts – one at a junior-high math class where email messages were sent as intervention and another in a blended learning context in a higher education physics class where an active learning strategy was implemented. Our novelty lies in the proposed automated approach of data aggregation, analysis, and case storing using a Learning Analytics framework for supporting evidence-based practice more accessible for practitioners.


Learning analytics, Evidence-based education, Technology-enhanced Evidence-based Education & Learning (TEEL), Learning Evidence Analytics Framework (LEAF), Mixed effects model, Teaching-learning case

Cite as:Kuromiya, H., Majumdar, R., & Ogata, H. (2020). Fostering Evidence-Based Education with Learning Analytics: Capturing Teaching-Learning Cases from Log Data. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 14–29. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0002

Yu-Tzu Lin

Graduate Institute of Information and Computer Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // linyt@ntnu.edu.tw

Cheng-Chih Wu

Graduate Institute of Information and Computer Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // chihwu@ntnu.edu.tw

Zhi-Hong Chen

Graduate Institute of Information and Computer Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // Institute for Research Excellence in Learning Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // zhchen@ntnu.edu.tw

Pei-Yi Ku

Graduate Institute of Information and Computer Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // smile.peggy333@gmail.com


This study aimed to investigate the effects of gender pairings on collaborative problem-solving performance, processes, and attitudes in a social learning context. Three types of pairings (i.e., male-male, female-female, and mixed pairings) were considered in an empirical study with 222 tenth-grade students. The selection of three different schools facilitated discussions regarding which schools were more divergent and competitive in a social learning context. The students were asked to solve computer science problems on a social media platform. The results revealed that (1) the single-gender groups had more focused discussions than the mixed-gender groups. Specifically, the male-male groups tended to develop and test their solutions directly without spending significant time on problem identification. Consequently, the single-gender groups exhibited superior performance compared to the mixed-gender groups in terms of applying their knowledge to problem solving. In terms of attitudes toward social learning, the female-female groups were more attentive to the benefits of social learning than the male-male groups. (2) The mixed gender groups had more diverse and divergent discussions compared to the single-gender groups. The educational implications of these findings are also discussed in this paper.


Social learning, Gender pairing, Gender difference, Social media, Problem solving

Cite as:Lin, Y.-T., Wu, C.-C., Chen, Z.-H., & Ku, P.-Y. (2020). How Gender Pairings Affect Collaborative Problem Solving in Social-Learning Context: The Effects on Performance, Behaviors, and Attitudes. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 30–44. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0003

Yu-chu Yeh

Institute of Teacher Education, National Chengchi University, Taiwan // Research Center for Mind, Brain & Learning, National Chengchi University, Taiwan // ycyeh@nccu.edu.tw

Chih-Yen Chang

Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan // eally1123@gmail.com

Yu-Shan Ting

Department of Education, National Chengchi University, Taiwan // pnm40275@gmail.com

Szu-Yu Chen

Department of Business Administration, Oklahoma State University, USA // cindytaipeior@gmail.com


To date, no study has examined whether enhancing mindfulness in everyday life through varied smartphone-based interventions involving photo taking could improve creativity or whether the beliefs toward mobile-based learning would influence such mindfulness learning effect. This study, therefore, developed the inventory “Beliefs toward Mobile Devices for Creativity Learning” and designed four interventions to validate the feasibility of such a new approach. One hundred and eighty-three college students participated in the inventory development, and 149 college students, who were randomly assigned to a control group (Group 1) or one of the three experimental groups, participated in a one-week experimental instruction. While Group 1 did not receive any smartphone intervention, the experimental groups used their smartphones to take photos with different emphases for four days and to share the photos with imaginative narratives on a designated website. Group 2 emphasized free choices of photo taking (self-determination), Group 3 emphasized self-determination and idea sharing, and Group 4 emphasized self-determination in varied categories and idea sharing. The results suggest the developed inventory has good reliability and validity; moreover, incorporating both self-determination and knowledge sharing lead to the best learning effect. Notably, beliefs toward mobile-based learning influence intervention effects on the enhancement of creativity self-efficacy. Accordingly, even a small amount of mindful learning in everyday life using a smartphone lens may enhance creativity. This study provides a valid instrument and smartphone-based mindfulness approach for ubiquitous learning of creativity.


Creativity, Knowledge sharing, Mindful learning, Self-determination, Smartphone

Cite as:Yeh, Y., Chang, C.-Y., Ting, Y.-S., & Chen, S.-Y. (2020). Effects of Mindful Learning Using a Smartphone Lens in Everyday Life and Beliefs toward Mobile-based Learning on Creativity Enhancement. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 45–58. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0004

Rustam Shadiev

School of Education Science, Nanjing Normal University, China // rustamsh@gmail.com

Zi Heng Zhang

School of Education Science, Nanjing Normal University, China // 1040303326@qq.com

Ting-Ting Wu

National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan // ttwu@yuntech.edu.tw

Yueh Min Huang

Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan // huangncku@gmail.com


We reviewed studies on recognition technologies published in the last ten years. This review study was aimed toward identifying, appraising, selecting, and synthesizing all high quality research evidence published in the literature related to recognition technologies and on determining how they can assist learning and instruction. This study particularly focuses on summarizing the current state of knowledge in the following dimensions: (1) recognition technology and processes, (2) applications, (3) schemes, and (4) advantages and disadvantages. We reviewed seventy-two papers and identified eighteen recognition technologies. Our results showed that all of the recognition technologies under consideration featured different recognition processes and applications. In most studies, the participants were university students. Questionnaires and tests were the most frequently used data collection methods. Most studies used a group comparison as their research design. Finally, several advantages and disadvantages of the recognition technologies were identified and summarized in the papers. The most frequently cited disadvantage was a low recognition accuracy rate. Based on our results, several suggestions and implications are made for the teaching and research community.


Review, Recognition technology, Learning and instruction

Cite as:Shadiev, R., Zhang Z. H., Wu, T.-T., & Huang, Y. M. (2020). Review of Studies on Recognition Technologies and Their Applications Used to Assist Learning and Instruction. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 59–74. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0005

Moe D. Greene

Virginia Commonwealth University, USA // Moe.greene@Fulbrightmail.org

William M. Jones

Virginia Commonwealth University, USA // joneswm2@vcu.edu


Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) defines the knowledge domains required for successful technology integration. Context is identified as an important component of TPACK. The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine context levels and the application of TPACK in the area of English language teaching and learning. The empirical studies reviewed were published between 2009 and 2019. Initial database searches yielded 365 results from which 24 articles were included in the final content analysis. Analysis of the included studies revealed that classroom factors at the micro contextual level were addressed more frequently than those at the meso and macro contextual levels, which were frequently not taken into consideration in the definition and explanation of TPACK. The majority of studies used qualitative methods for data collection which were also commonly determined through self-reporting. When self-reporting is used, TPACK is exclusively viewed as knowledge that teachers possess regardless of their context. The data indicate that teacher’s contextual factors such as dispositions are not always included in the operationalization of TPACK. Teachers’ contextual factors highlight their perspectives and belief systems. A critical perspective of teacher’s TPACK knowledge development across contexts and the roles teachers are assigned in the classroom are vital to understanding the paradigm shifts that inform teachers’ practices and training.


Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Context, Contextual levels, English language, TPACK application

Cite as:Greene, M. D., & Jones, W. M. (2020). Analyzing Contextual Levels and Applications of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in English as a Second Language Subject Area: A Systematic Literature Review. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 75–88. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0006

Kuo-Chin Lin

Center for Physical and Health Education, Si Wan College, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan // linkuochin@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

I-Chen Lee

Department of Statistics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan // iclee@mail.ncku.edu.tw

Chih-Fu Cheng

Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan // jeff@ntnu.edu.tw

Hui-Chun Hung

Graduate Institute of Network Learning Technology, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan // hch@cl.ncu.edu.tw


To improve the badminton skills learning of students, this study proposed the portfolio-based WISER model, which combines tablets for instantaneous recording and Facebook for e-portfolios. The 97 learners in the experimental group (EG) were taught with tablets and Facebook, and the 102 learners in the control group (CG) were taught with traditional teaching methods. The paired sample t test and ANCOVA were used for statistical analysis. The posttests of smashing and footwork in the EG and CG were both significantly higher than those on the pretests. The posttest scores for smashing were significantly higher in the EG than those in the CG. For pretest scores were higher than 7.66 or lower than 5.09, the posttest footwork scores were significantly higher in the EG than in the CG. The proposed portfolio-based WISER model can help students reinforce their understanding of badminton skills and improve their skill learning.


Tablets, Social media, Badminton, Motor skill learning, e-portfolio

Cite as:Lin, K.-C., Lee, I.-C., Cheng, C.-F., & Hung, H.-C. (2020). The Effects of Adopting Tablets and Facebook for Learning Badminton Skills: A Portfolio-Based WISER Model in Physical Education. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 89–105. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0007

Valentina Goglio

University of Turin, Italy // Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA // valentina.goglio@unito.it

Paolo Parigi

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA // Facebook, Menlo Park, CA, USA // pparigi@stanford.edu


The rapid and impressive development of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in less than half a decade has generated contrasting arguments about their social dimension. This paper investigates how the socio-economic background of learners affects their own experience and chances of course completion. The analyses test whether learners with a low socio-economic status (SES) have fewer chances of completing the online course and whether participation in online discussion forums moderates the role of SES. The data comes from two MOOCs provided by Stanford University. We find a negative association between low SES, course completion and course engagement. Moreover, we find that forum participation plays an ambiguous role, reinforcing the advantage of well-educated learners enrolled in one course, while it has no significant effect on the other course. The article concludes with some policy implications on social stratification in MOOCs and with some design suggestions for creators of MOOCs.


MOOCs, SES, Social inequality, Higher education

Cite as:Goglio, V., & Parigi, P. (2020). The Social Dimension of Participation and Completion in MOOCs. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 106–123. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0008

Hui-Chuan Chu, William Wei-Jen Tsai, Min-Ju Liao, Yuh-Min Chen and Jou-Yin Chen

Hui-Chuan Chu

Department of Special Education, National University of Tainan, Taiwan // huichu@mail.nutn.edu.tw

William Wei-Jen Tsai

Institute of Manufacturing Information and Systems, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan // xturtle@imis.ncku.edu.tw

Min-Ju Liao

Department of Psychology, National Chung-Cheng University, Taiwan // mjliao@ccu.edu.tw

Yuh-Min Chen

Institute of Manufacturing Information and Systems, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan // ymchen@mail.ncku.edu.tw

Jou-Yin Chen

Kaohsiung Municipal Hsin-Da Elementary School, Taiwan // chenzuin@gmail.com


Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in general have been found to have significantly lower academic achievement relative to their level of ability. Research has shown that students’ emotional impairment with ASD severely interferes with their learning process, and academic emotions are domain-specific in nature. Therefore, the regulation of domain-specific academic emotions is an important approach to help students with ASD learn effectively. This study proposed an e-learning model that featured emotion recognition and emotion regulation to enhance mathematics e-learning for students with ASD. An emotion recognition approach based on facial recognition, an emotion regulation model, and a mathematics e-learning platform, were developed to realize the e-learning model. Two e-learning conditions: timed contest and increased difficulty of learning, were created for gathering information by observing two indexes: mathematical learning performance and negative emotional behaviors in each condition. An experiment in a mathematical e-learning context was performed to evaluate the performance of e-learning and emotion regulation effectiveness. The results of the emotion recognition classifier reached a 93.34% average recognition rate, and the participants of this experiment displayed a statistically significant decrease in targeted negative behaviors from baseline to intervention (p = .000) and significant improvements in mathematics learning performance (p = .005); however, responses to emotion regulation interventions varied among the participants. Implications for research and practice are discussed.


Autism spectrum disorder, Emotion regulation, Emotion recognition, E-Learning, Intelligent systems, Mathematics learning

Cite as:Chu, H.-C., Tsai, W. W.-J., Liao, M.-J., Chen, Y.-M., Chen, J.-Y. (2020). Supporting E-Learning with Emotion Regulation for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 124–146. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0009

Daner Sun

Department of Mathematics and Information Technology, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China // dsun@eduhk.hk

Chee-Kit Looi

National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore // cheekit.looi@nie.edu.sg

Yuqin Yang

Faculty of Artificial Intelligence in Education, Hubei Research Center for Educational Informationization, Central China Normal University, China // yuqinyang0904@gmail.com

Jin Sun

Department of Early Childhood, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China // jinsun@eduhk.hk


Guided by the Boundary Activity based Learning (BABL) principle, mobile technology-supported inquiry learning activities were implemented in a primary four science class in Hong Kong. An exploratory study was conducted to examine the effects of the BABL guided inquiry activities on students’ learning performance and to explore how the key element, the boundary object, operated in different learning spaces. In the study, mixed research methods were used to evaluate students’ conceptual understanding and their engagement in and attitudes toward BABL activities. The reciprocal interactions of students’ cognition were qualitatively analyzed in terms of the forms and functions of boundary objects in the BABL environment. The results showed that students made significant improvements in conceptual understanding and were engaged in BABL activities. The study also revealed that the generation of abstract boundary objects, together with physical boundary objects, promoted students’ learning and thinking as they shuttled between the classroom and the outside. This research contributes to informing educators about how to design and implement technology-supported teaching and learning through the use of boundary objects in crossing learning contexts.


Boundary object, Boundary Activity based Learning (BABL) principle, Science inquiry, Crossing learning contexts

Sun, D., Looi, C.-K., Yang, Y., & Sun, J. (2020). Design and Implementation of the Boundary Activity Based Learning (BABL) Principle in Science Inquiry: An Exploratory Study. Educational Technology & Society, 23(4), 147–162. https://doi.org/10.30191/ETS.202010_23(4).0010

Starting from Volume 17 Issue 4, all published articles of the journal of Educational Technology & Society are available under Creative Commons CC-BY-ND-NC 3.0 license.